Tangney 13 further emphasized the link between shame and anger by noting that shame-prone people are not only likely to experience more anger, but are more likely to manage their anger in maladaptive ways, such as acting out their particularly hostile intentions. This article offers a review of some current theoretical and clinical material in order to update and sensitize psychotherapists in their work with shame-prone patients. Gabbard 19 has distinguished an arrogant, grandiose, interpersonally insulated subtype oblivious subtype from an oversensitive, easily hurt or ashamed subtype hypervigilant subtype within the spectrum of narcissistic personality disorder. Feelings of weakness or deficiency are common countertransference reactions to work with patients whose shameful sense of enfeeblement is enacted projectively, causing the psychotherapist to contain a sense of inadequacy or badness. Abstract Current theory on self-conscious emotions emphasizes the importance of shame-related phenomena in psychopathology and psycho- therapy. Chicago, University of Chicago Press,pp 13— Guilt was further associated with a tendency to accept responsibility and a decreased tendency toward anger and hostility.
It is useful clinically to be aware of this bifurcation of mental internalizations because it helps us to notice the prevailing polarity of the patient's active internal shaming dialogue.
Shame-Related States of Mind in Psychotherapy
Depression is the stuck place between anger and grief. Research and thinking from this perspective view emotions as adaptive to human functioning and grounded in cognitive processes such as appraisals. After all, they are only painful memories, not imperious demons. Shame is also closely linked to volatile expressions of anger. The emphasis is on helping the patient face and become desensitized to the stimuli social situations that cause them the most trouble. Which, of course means that the love is never complete, never a comment on the person as she is, but as she pleases her parents by satisfying their expectations and demands.